Courts of Law
The following are extracts from the records of the Old Bailey (London's Central Criminal court 1674 - 1913)
Their excellent website has full information and original images. www.oldbaileyonline.org
Aaron Dring Highway robbery, 16th January 1755. Verdict: Not Guilty
44. (M. 1.) Aaron Dring was indicted for that he on Jeremiah Reuben , on the king's highway, did make an assault, putting him in corporal fear, and danger of his life, and taking from his person 1 s. 6 d. his property , Decemb 15 . * Jeremiah Reuben. On Sunday the 15th of December, I went from London to Barnet on foot, between two and three o'clock. I was between the 7 and 8 miles stone on Finchley-common , when I saw a soldier walking about half a mile before me. He made several halts till I came up with him; then he said, How do you do, brother-traveler? and asked me how far it was over the common. I said, About a mile, or mile and half. He walked with me about two stones throw. I asked him how far he was going He said, Only over this common. He asked me how far I was going? I said, To Barnet. He seeing the road was clear, took me by the arm, and said, I must have your money. I complained, and said, I was a poor traveler going about fifty or sixty miles, and had not much money. He said, If you don't make haste, I'll stick you, or cut you. Then I pulled out 1 s. 6 d. from my pocket, and some half-pence. He took the 1 s. 6 d. and left the half-pence. Q. Had he a sword by his side? J. Reuben. No. He put his hand to his pocket, when he said he would cut me. He turned down the common on the right-hand, and I went on. In about ten minutes I met two men on horseback, to whom I told of my being robbed. Q. Was the soldier then in sight? J. Reuben. No, he was not. There came three men and overtook me in about a quarter of an hour afterwards. I told them of it: I went with them through Whetstone turnpike. There came a Man after me on horseback, and asked which of us had been robbed? Q. How long was this after the robbery? J. Reuben. It might be about three quarters of an hour after. The other men told him I had. Then I went back with that man to Brown's-wells; there I found the soldier, which I believe is the prisoner at the bar. He wanted to shake hands with me; but I did not care to do that. The people there said, he of his own accord had told them he had robbed me; and he said so, in my hearing, of several times. Q. Do you believe, or are you positive, the prisoner is the man that robbed you? J. Reuben. I can't swear positive; I believe he is the man. Richard Nusham . I live at Brown's-wells on Finchley-common; on the 15th of December, between two and three in the afternoon, I was sat down to dinner, some post-boys came from Barnet, and told me a man had been robbed, and that the robber was gone across the common. I, my son, and Thomas Wallis , ran after him, and overtook him, which was the prisoner now at the bar, about half a mile from my house. The post-men rode before, and stopt him; we brought him to my house, and sent for a constable; the prosecutor was fetched back, and I thought the prisoner would have given him his 1 s. 6 d. back again. I heard him say he had robbed a man with a bundle under his arm of 1 s. 6 d. and said, he hoped they would not hang him; but he did not mind being transported. Q. Had he soldier's cloaths on then? R. Nusham. He had. Q. to prosecutor. Did he give you your 1 s. 6 d. there? J. Reuben. No, he did not. Q. Had you a bundle under your arm, when you was robbed? J. Reuben. I had a bundle on my stick upon my shoulder.
Prisoner's defence. I was not the man that robbed him. To his character. John Collier . I have known the prisoner betwixt four and five years, which time he has belonged to the same company with me; he has behaved very well; I always took him to be a very honest man. Thomas Thomson . I have known the prisoner these twenty years; he and I were born at Norwich; I enlisted him into the regiment, since which time he has behaved exceeding well; he has been trusted in his quarters to draw beer; I never heard any complaint of him, neither did I ever hear any ill of him in my life. Acquitted .
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE's ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, &c.
BY virtue of his majesty's commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal delivery, for the high court of Admiralty of England, held at JusticeHall in the Old-Baily, on Monday the 29th of October, 1759, before the right worshipful Sir Thomas Salusbury, Knt . L.L.D. Judge of the high court of Admiralty ; the honourable Sir Edward Clive, Knt. the honourable Henry Bathurst, two of the justices of his majesty's court of Common-Pleas ; and other his majesty's commissioners, &c. A bill of indictment was found by the Grand Inquest against William Lawrence, Samuel Dring, William Goff, and Hendric Muller, late of London, mariners , for piratically and feloniously boarding a ship called the Enighadt, belonging to persons to the jurors unknown, upon the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the admiralty of England, about three leagues from the North Foreland, in the county of Kent, in this kingdom, and assaulting Christian Van Aften, then master thereof, and robbing him of six guineas, his property, and twenty deal boxes, value 40s. and three bales of cambrick, value 700 l. and two bales of bed-ticking, value 100 l. the goods of persons to the jurors unknow, April 3, 1759. To this indictment they pleaded Nor guilty; and for their trial put themselves on God and their country. The issue of this trial was, that three were found guilty, namely, Lawrence, Dring, and Muller; and one, namely Goffe, was acquitted. The evidence for the crown were Christian Van Asten, master , Fedy Olford, mate of the said ship Enighadt, Henry Welch, a passenger therein, and Thomas Seal, first lieutenant of the Pluto privateer cutter, of six carriage, and ten swivel guns, and of which Lawrence was captain . The witnesses all agreed that Lawrence was one of the first four or five that boarded the Dutch ship or dogger. Most of them agreed, that he, or some of his company with him, demanded shot-money, and received first two guineas, and then four, or three and a half; and the lieutenant, Seal, proved that Lawrence returned without any goods, but left two or three of his hands in the Dutchman, and sent the first lieutenant with about six more back to them, without any particular orders; but that they, well knowing their errand, did not come back empty handed, but brought the goods charged in the indictment, and that the captain received them on board his privateer; that they were put ashore at a place called New-Harbour, two miles from Rye, then sold, and the money divided. Capt. Lawrence offered nothing in his defence, but that he was locked up in his cabbin by the lieutenant, when the goods were brought along-side; the others made no defence. When visited after their conviction, they all behaved themselves with humility and seriousness, daily attended the chapel, and received and complied with such instructions as were given, proper for their sad condition. Dring and Muller pleaded innocence, as acting under the command of their officers, to whom they could not refuse obedience. But they must have been sensible that this was no reason, nor sufficient authority for them to transgress the laws of God, and their country, and incur the penalty of death. Lawrence never attempted to disown his guilt, on the whole matter, as having received the goods on board his cutter, but denied several particulars of Van Asten, the Dutch captain's evidence against him, as that it was not he, but Hendrick Muller, who demanded the papers, and looked at them, and that one of his crew demanded and took the shot-money; owned that he fired a two pounder three or four times to bring him too; denied that he had any of those liquors to drink, which the Dutch captain said he gave him, or that he blacked his face, or otherwise disguised himself, or that he struck Van Asten, or any of his men, when on board him; or that he was present when four guineas more, besides the first two, were demanded and taken, or when the captain and crew were locked up in the cabbin; by all which he would shew, that the Dutch captain was too forward and hardy in his evidence against him. Mean time several endeavours were used by his friends to save his life, but they met with no countenance or hope, much less success. He was however indulged with a very favourable length of time, to prepare and make his peace, which it must be owned, he seemed all along disposed to make the best use of he was able, and it is hoped to good purpose. .......................
.................About the 9th or 10th of December the death warrant came down, by which Samuel Dring, and Hendrick Muller were respited, and William Lawrence ordered for execution, to the great relief and consolation of the two former, but not so much to the dejecting of the latter as might be apprehended; for when spoken to, and conversed with on that trying occasion, he seemed to bear it with Christian fortitude and patience, saying "He had laboured day and night to prepare himself to bear this shock; and God had graciously given him a heart to bear his afflictions; and for this he would strive yet more and more." And as he spoke, so he performed, for such a firmness and serenity of mind, is rarely to be found in persons in his unhappy circumstances, as was observable in him to the hour of his death.
SAMUEL DRING, MICHAEL ROACH, Ccoining offences, 30th August 1786. Verdicts: Guilty
754. SAMUEL DRING was indicted for that he, on the 8th day of August , five pieces of false and counterfeit silver milled money and coin, made and counterfeited to the likeness of a shilling, not cut in pieces, unlawfully and feloniously did pay and put off to one Lewis Abrahams , at a lower rate than the same did import, viz. for three shillings and threepence : And MICHAEL ROACH was indicted for that he, on the same day, unlawfully and feloniously did aid, abet, counsel and procure him the said Samuel Dring to do and commit the felony aforesaid : Another Count, For the like offence, only varying the manner of laying the charge. (The case opened by Mr. Silvester.) LEWIS ABRAHAMS sworn. (Produces five shillings.) How much did you give for them? - I gave him three shillings and sixpence, and I told him to give me the worth of that, and he gave me five bad shillings and three pennyworth of halfpence back again. On the 4th of August, I went to Dring's house in Little Drury-lane, he was not at home; I went again the 7th, and saw him; he came down in his shirt sleeves, and we appointed to meet at a house in the city, opposite Bow-church , at five in the afternoon, and he was to bring some counterfeit shillings with him; I was there at half past four; I told him, I would buy some and help him to a customer for more; I waited a little while, and saw Dring come out of the public house; says I, have you got the money with you? no, says he, I have none now, I will bring it to-morrow morning, and meet at the same public house; the next morning he had not got it, but he said, I must go with him to Beech-lane; we went, and called at the George, a public house; he told me to call for a pint of beer; but I stopped at the door, and he went into a baker's shop opposite, and stopped two or three minutes. Who lives at the baker's shop? - I do not know; then he came to me, and we went in and called for a pint of beer; after a little while Roach came in, and said, we must wait half an hour; they were not ready yet; he did not mention what, I told Dring I would go and tell the man not to be out of patience, to wait, and I would bring some of the money as soon as I could; I went in search of a constable, and I met with Mr. Newman, near Cripplegate, and appointed him to wait at the White Horse, and I would bring a man to him that was putting off some bad silver; I went back to Dring's, and sat there an hour and an half, and then Roach came in again, and said, they were not ready yet, we must wait; Dring answered then never mind waiting a little while, for Roach will pay the reckoning, to detain us so long as he does; after Dring said, he would pay the reckoning, I said to Dring they are a long while finishing such a few as that there; says Dring they are finishing some more for somebody else at the same time; when it wanted about ten minutes to three, I said to Dring, they keep us a long while, says I, if he does not come presently, I will go to a place in Cloth-fair; I can have some there, and soon after Roach came in, says he, I am ready for you now; Dring and I got up from the bench, and Roach paid the reckoning, and we all three went out of the public house together; we then turned towards Redcross-street, and they desired me to wait there for two or three minutes; I saw them go into a baker's shop, the same that Dring and Roach went into; they stopped about five minutes; they came towards me; then Dring said to Roach, let me have the money; Roach said, he could not give it out of his hands, because he had been cheated several times; Dring says to him, then let me have half a-piece; I do not know what they meant by that; Roach then gave him a paper; I did not see what was in it when he gave it him; Dring and I waiked two or three yards on, and he opened the paper; it contained fifteen counterfeit shillings; I said to Dring, I had but three shillings and sixpence about me; let me have as much as that money comes to; I then gave him the three shillings and sixpence, and he gave me five counterfeit shillings and three penny-worth of halfpence; as soon as they came into the house the officers took them. Mr. Garrow, Prisoner's Counsel. Was not Mrs. Moses in company with you? - I do not know who you mean, there was no woman in company with me. Upon your oath, do not you know who I mean? - No, I do not, I know a great many Mrs. Moses's. Do not you know that I mean the woman who was a witness here last session? - There was no woman. Is this the first time we have seen you this session? - You know best. Is it I say? - You have the most right to know. Had you no Christian or Jew by? - No, Sir. How many times have you appeared here and the Juries found verdicts against your evidence directly? - You know best; I will tell you the reason; the prisoners employed people to swear. I get nothing by what I do. You will not swear that; do you mean to swear that you do this without fee or reward, and for the good of your country? - Yes, I do swear that. Court. Do you mean that you are to get nothing for this? - I suppose I shall be allowed my expences. By whom? - By the Court I suppose. Suppose the Court should not, who are to allow you your expences? - I do not know rightly. Take care what you swear, for though you may not give a true account, those that employ you will? - I am employed by nobody. You swear that? - I am employed by nobody. Nobody knew before-hand of your doing this? - No, my Lord. Nobody promised to give you any thing for it, or to pay you any expences? - No, my Lord, I had no promises from any body. Nothing at all? - No; my expences I expect, that is all. Did you prosecute Cole for nothing? - The gentleman paid me my expences. What did he pay you? - He allowed me a crown a day, but I did no know he would pay me any thing. Do not you expect five shillings a day from the Solicitor of the mint on this prosecution? - I do not know, Sir, if he pleases to give it me. Do you expect it, Sir? - I do expect it after the trial is over. You did not know what a piece was? - No, I did not know what he meant by it. That you swear positively? - Yes. Then upon the former trial you did not swear what a piece meant? - I do not know; I cannot say whether I did or no. Do you believe you did not? - I cannot tell. Since you have been transported how often have you been examined as a witness? Mr. Silvester. I object to that? - I shall not answer without my Lord tells me so. Court. I shall not tell him to answer it, till you prove he has been transported. JOHN NEWMAN sworn. On the 8th of August, about twelve at noon, I was coming down Fore-street, and going towards Guildhall; I saw Abrahams and another Jew before me to my knowledge, I never saw Abrahams before; he came to me, and met me at the White Horse, and Abrahams and Dring came in; Abrahams asked Dring, what he would have to drink; Abrahams nodded to me, and I thought Dring had something in his hand; I asked him what it was; he said what is that to you? says I, what is it? says he, I do not know, I picked it up at the door: it was these ten bad shillings. In about five minutes came Roach and another man in the passage, and they seeing some people standing at the door, turned back; I searched Roach, and in his left hand waistcoat pocket I found five shillings and some good silver; in his breeches pocket I found two; and this five shillings I took out of Abrahams See original breeches pocket; Mr. Sargesson who was by, said, search him as well as the others. Mr. Garrow. Did Abrahams tell you to search him? - No. To Abrahams. Are the five shillings that were taken out of your pocket, the same you had of the prisoner? - Yes. Newman. I believe there might be three pence halfpenny or a groat. - SARGESSON sworn. After Mr. Newman had searched Roach, I thought he shifted, and had more, and searching round the waistband of his breeches, exactly behind, I found these, thirty of them. (Produced.) REUBEN FLETCHER sworn. I am one of the moniers of the Mint; I have examined these shillings, they are all bad. (Handed to the Jury.) PRISONER ROACH'S DEFENCE. On Friday evening the 8th of August, with another man in company, I picked up a blue handkerchief, and he cried halves; we went into the Pied-horse, near Moorfields; I gave him two papers and took two; then I came home to sell them to Mr. Cox, the refiner; I never conversed with the man. PRISONER DRING'S DEFENCE. A person saw me pick them up at the door. The prisoner Roach called five witnesses to his character.
SAMUEL DRING , MICHAEL ROACH , GUILTY . Each fined 1 s. and imprisoned twelve months in Newgate . Tried by the London Jury before Mr. RECORDER.
SAMUEL DRING,Coining offences, 10th September 1788. Verdict: Not Guilty
590. SAMUEL DRING was indicted, for, that he, at the general quarter sessions of the peace, holden for the county of Middlesex on the 7th of October, in the 24th year of his present Majesty's reign, was tried and convicted of being a common utterer of false and counterfeit money, and that he, on the 3d of September last, one piece of false and counterfeit money and coin, as and for a piece of good, lawful and current money of this realm, called a sixpence, did utter to Hannah the wife of Richard Cotterell , he well knowing the same to be false and counterfeit . Before the indictment was opened, Mr. Agur, the prisoner's counsel, took an objection on the face of it, that it was necessary to prove the prisoner to have been before a common utterer, to constitute which he argued that there must be two offences, and the indictment only stated him to have been once convicted: The court directed the trial to proceed, and informed Mr. Agur, that as the objection arose on the record, he might save it. The case opened by Mr. Silvester. (The witnesses examined separate.) The copy of the record of the prisoner's former conviction was (after several objections taken by Mr. Agur) proved by Mr. Samuel Vines , and read and examined with the indictment. THOMAS ROBERTS sworn. I was present when this prisoner was tried at the sessions-house on Clerkenwell-green, in the month of September, 1784; he was at Clerkenwell prison before that; he was tried for uttering, and confined one year. Prisoner. Was not I tried for something else? - Yes, he was tried for an assault, and fined 40 s. Mr. Agur. Was that the whole of the sentence? - And to find securities for two years. JOHN BEAMISH sworn. Mr. Silvester. You are a constable? - I belong to the Rotation-office in Litchfield-street. Do you know the prisoner? - I have known the prisoner between six and seven years; on Wednesday the 3d of September I saw him in the Wheatsheaf public-house in Smithfield; I had been in Bartholomew-fair; coming along, I saw some suspicious people at the door, and just in the passage I saw the prisoner; he had just put a glass out of his hand; the woman says to him, this is a bad sixpence; her name is Mrs. Cotterell, the landlady of the house; the prisoner took the sixpence from the landlady, and turned round as it were to look at it; and immediately as he turned round I took it out of his hand; I am sure it is the same sixpence; I have had it ever since; I got him into the parlour, we scuffled for about twenty minutes; I threw him down across some chairs, and two sixpences sell from his hand, which I picked up and put into my mouth; he wanted to get away; I caught hold of him, as well as I could, in my other hand, and in the struggle something fell down; I thought there was money in his mouth; I called to the people to pick up what money fell; a man picked up a shilling and two sixpences, which he gave to me; I kept them; (produced) after that, two of the city officers came to my assistance, and we took him to the Compter; he was searched in the Compter; there were ten shillings, and some halfpence found on him. Mr. Agur. Mr. Beamish, my learned friend has called you a constable, that was his soft expression, but you are a thief-taker? - Yes. You happened to be in luck that morning? - I do not know much about that, not much luck there. Upon your oath, do not you know there is a reward? - Upon my oath, I know it is no such thing, and so does the Court know it. There is a reward of forty pounds, and if the sheriff does not give it immediately on application, it is increased to eighty pounds: why you are not in general ignorant of these cases, in which you have a prize? - There is none there, to my knowledge, but if there is any, I shall be very happy to have it. How long have you been a thief-taker? - Nine years. How came you to say, that as soon as you saw this man, you suspected something? - I will explain it if you wish it, because, a few years back I knew he was apprehended. You knew he had been convicted? - Yes. And having been once convicted, you knew he was a good prize? - I did not know it, nor neither do I know it now; I shall have no objection to know it now, if you please. You did not see the prisoner give that sixpence to the landlady? - No. The fact is, that in your presence this prisoner tendered no money to any body whatever? - No. You never heard of such a thing, as a shilling and a sixpence, by a dexterous thief-taker, being dropped as if it came from a prisoner? - I never heard of any such thing; I have attended this court nine years, and I believe my character has never been impeached. What did you understand by suspicious people? - By what I could learn, they were utterers of bad money; they made their escape. Court. Was the other man you speak of near Mrs. Cotterell at the time she gave the sixpence to the prisoner? - No, he was not. HANNAH COTTERELL sworn. My husband keeps the Wheatsheaf; his name is Richard; I remember a man coming to me, on the 3d of September; he did not ask for any thing at first; Beamish came in after; there was a man standing at the bar; he lent me sixpence first of all. Mr. Silvester. You know you are sworn to tell the whole truth? - Yes. If you conceal any part of the truth, or do not tell the whole, you are as much perjured as if you misrepresented; your oath is to speak the truth, the whole truth. Mr. Agur. And nothing but the truth? - I was giving change at the bar to two different people; not to this prisoner; and I wanted to borrow sixpence; the good man, the prisoner, said, I can lend you one, Mrs. Cotterell. Look at the prisoner? - To the best of my knowledge that was the man; he gave me a sixpence; it was a very bad one; and I returned it; he had not had any liquor at that time; about ten minutes, or a quarter of an hour after, he had a penny glass of gin; then the constable took him. Now upon your oath, because it may be serious by and by; did he offer you any thing to pay for the liquor? - He gave me a penny for the gin. Now, madam, he did not tender you any other money? - No, sir, not afterwards. Did he at any time? - He gave me a sixpence first of all into my hand, that was to lend me; the officer has it; he laid hold of him in about a minute. Did you say a word about lending before the alderman? - No, he only asked me whether it was the same sixpence; I never saw the prisoner before, nor he never tendered me any bad money; he lent me the sixpence; to the best of my knowledge that is the same sixpence; he had no glass in his hand, when I returned him the sixpence; not before the scuffle in the parlour; he had only one glass of me, and that was after the scuffle. SAMUEL ROBERTS sworn. I am a city constable; I took charge of the prisoner; I searched him at the Compter, and in his coat pocket I found these ten shillings in his inside pocket, with two pennyworth of halfpence; Bacherah and Beamish were in the Compter at the same time, when I searched him. Mr. Agur. Are you a thief-taker too? - No, I am one of the wardens of St. Sepulchre's; I do take one if I see him. Beamish had hold of the prisoner? - Yes. So that he might have slipped this money into his coat pocket? - I do not think he could, I saw no such thing; this was an inside pocket. Court. Were they in a paper or loose? - Loose in his pocket, with two pennyworth of halfpence. Mr. Silvester to Beamish. Did you see this money before it was taken on the prisoner? - No. Did you slip it into his pocket? - No, I never carry such a quantity of money with me. REUBEN FLETCHER sworn. I am one of the moniers of the mint; this is a piece of base metal, (looks at the rest) they are all the same. Mr. Agur objected, that there was no evidence to put the prisoner on his defence, as the crime charged against him in the indictment, was uttering in payment, and this money, at most, appeared only to be lent, which objection was overruled. For the Prisoner. MARY PRICE sworn. I live at No. 54, Saffron-hill. Were you present at this transaction at the Wheatsheaf? - I was. State to the Court and jury what you observed most? - I asked the prisoner to come in to drink; I met him at the fair; I had money in my hand, and halfpence to pay; and the woman wanted sixpence; and the prisoner lent it her; he had no liquor till he was going out; there was a great tussle between the prisoner and Beamish; I saw Beamish handing him out with one hand, and I saw the other hand in his pocket; this was in the house in the passage; it was the time of the scuffle. Do you take upon you, positively to say, you saw Beamish's hand in the prisoner's pocket during the scuffle? - Yes, I do, and the window was broken during the same. Mr. Silvester. Take off your bonnet and let us see you; what are you? - I am in lodgings at present; I am a married woman; my husband is in the country; he has been footman to Lord John Russel between four and five years, and been with him to France. What business do you carry on? - I do any thing; wash, or iron, or few, or any thing I can do for a living; I left my plane a very little while since; I was cook to the Reverend Mr. Sellon, Clerkenwell; Lord John and my husband are at the waters near Margate, towards Margate, somewhere that way, Has not he written to his tender wife? - Yes, he has. You wrote to him in answer? - Yes. Can you write and read? - Yes, but not very well; Miss Lydia Sellon wrote for me. Where did you direct your letter? - It was directed to my Lord's. But whereabouts? - At some wells, just by Margate, to Richard Price , at Lord John Russell 's. How long have you known Mr. Dring? - Two or three years back. Did you know him in 1784? - No, I had no more acquaintance with him than another neighbour; I know his wife and daughter; he has two daughters and a son. Where are the daughters, upon your oath? - Somewhere about this place; I dare say, in the yard. Are they within the walls? - They are within the walls here. Mr. Agur. Do you mean to say, that they are in gaol? - No, they are here, by the door. Mr. Silvester. Take care what you say; do you mean to say, that you know the daughters, and that they are neither of them under confinement? - No, they are not; they are both at the door; I never saw Beamish before that time; I have seen him since at this place; I had no conversation with him; I attended before the alderman when Mr. Dring was examined; and the Jew tried to push me out, and he could not; and Beamish helped him, and did push me out, because I should not tell the truth. Now you mean to swear, that you never had any conversation with Beamish? - No, never in my life. Then it is not true, that you offered him two guineas to get the bill thrown out? - No, I never did in my life, no never in my life. What is the name of your landlord? - I am sure I cannot tell; it is next to the barber's; it is a room with my own furniture; I have known the prisoner three or four years; I never heard any other but a good character; an industrious honest man; and great business in his shop. Jury. Had the prisoner any good money in his pocket at the time the bad money was taken from him? - None but two pennyworth of halfpence with that bad silver, and three halfpence farthing in another pocket. Prisoner. I had seven shillings in my watch-pocket. Court to Roberts. Had he any other silver about him than that which you found? - None. Mr. Agur. Did you feel in his watch pocket? - I felt on the outside; I did not put my hand in. There might be silver then in his watch-pocket? - I felt none. NOT GUILTY .
James Dring Coining offences, 10th September 1788. Verdict: Not Guilty
no evidence 602. JAMES DRING was indicted for uttering a piece of counterfeit money, and having more about him . There being no evidence, the prisoner was ACQUITTED . Tried by the London Jury before Mr. ROSE.
Samuel Dring Coining offences, 24th February 1790. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Death
249. SAMUEL DRING was indicted for that he, on the 4th of February last, in the parish of St. Mary le Strand, did feloniously and traiterously, falsely and deceitfully, colour a piece of base coin, of the form and figure of an half crown, with materials producing the colour of silver . A Second Count for doing in the same manner with a round blank, fit to be coined into half crowns, resembling the money of the Mint. A third and fourth Count, for doing the same with a piece of base coin, of the form and resemblance of a sixpence, and for doing the same with a round blank of base metal, to be coined into a sixpence. The case was opened by Mr. Silvester. (The witnesses examined separate.) PETER MAYNE sworn. I am an officer, attending the public office, East Smithfield. On Thursday, the 4th of last month, I received information against a barber's shop, in Little Drury-lane , upon this business, to which I went at a quarter after two in that day; I went into the shop, where were two men by the fire; I proceeded up stairs; I left one on the first floor, who went with me; I proceeded up the other pair of stairs; I got to the top, and met the prisoner on the top of the second story; I laid hold of him: we had a scuffle, and he got from me down stairs. Was he in the room, or on the landing place? - On the landing place. Had you told him who you was? - No, nor do I believe that he knew me. I called out to the next witness to lay hold of him, whose name is Benjamin Abrahams ; he was on the top of the first story, and Abrahams' brother, Joseph Abrahams , was behind him, standing on the same stairs; he accordingly stopped the prisoner, and brought him up stairs; when I got him into the room, I searched him in the room, at the top of the stairs; in his left hand breeches pocket I took this money out; (produced) this money was found in his left hand waistcoat pocket (produced); in his right hand waistcoat pocket I found a sixpence; then I proceeded to search the room, and in this bason, which was on the shelf, close by the window, this money was in it; there is a liquid in it, and the money was in it; part of this liquid is in a bottle: these two half crowns lay on the shelf, close to the bason; here is a bottle, likewise found on the shelf; here is some sand, which was in a bason, and a bit of scowering paper, and something, which I know not what it is, which I found in the room, and some white powder, in a paper. Had you made any observations about this man yourself? - The first thing, when I laid hold of him, I looked at his right hand, and his thumb and finger was black and sandy: while we were in the room the wife of the prisoner came up, and said, my dear, you have been cautioned against Jews, this is the second time a Jew hath deceived you. Mr. Knowlys. There are rooms above this second floor? - I believe there is a garret. Did you search that? - I did not. And you did not see this man come out of the room on the second floor? - He was on the landing place. Did you call at the house any other time? - Yes, by the desire of the gentlemen who are better acquainted with the business than I am, to see if there was any aquafortis on the floor. Who was with you? - Benjamin Abrahams , and his brother, Joseph Abrahams , they call him Bear. He is not here? - No. Did he assist you in apprehending this man? - He did. Court. Was the door open, of the room you went into? - Yes, it was. Whether the prisoner had been in that room you yourself do not know? - I cannot say positively. BENJAMIN ABRAHAMS sworn. I went, in company with Mayne, to this house in Drury-lane, between two and three o'clock in the afternoon, on the 4th of February; I went up stairs, Mr. Mayne went before me; and stood on one pair of stairs: there were some women on one pair of stairs, and they asked me what I wanted; within a minute I heard a rustling, and down comes the prisoner at the bar, and Mr. Mayne followed him, and said, do not let him go, bring him up again; on which I told him, you must not go down, you must go up with me; and on going up he made a kind of a bit of a stoop on the stairs; I thought I saw him put something on the stairs; halloo, says I, what have you got here on the stairs; I looked on the stairs, and found three half crowns and a shilling (produced); I then brought him up into the room, where Mr. Mayne was, and we looked about the room, where I saw Mr. Mayne find some things. Mr. Knowlys. I understand there was some other person went with you and Mayne to this house? - There was another officer, belonging to the same office. Is he here? - No. What business are you? - A shoemaker. Do you follow that business? - Yes; I am an headborough belonging to the parish I live in. Did you go to this house after the prisoner was in custody? - Yes, I did; I and Mr. Mayne; and there was no man when I went the second time, except a man in the shop. I believe you went to no other part of the house, the first time, but in the two pair of stairs? - I never went any where else; I was not in the garret. How long have you known Mayne? - Some time. JOHN CLARK sworn. Explain the use of all the things present. Clark. The bottle had had aqua fortis, and in the bason water, and if any metal is put into the aqua fortis, they then throw it into this water, and the strength of this aqua fortis makes this water all a pickle; I have tasted it, and this is so; by this sort of stuff being put into the aqua fortis, it draws the silver on the surface, and the strength of the aqua fortis turns them black, as some are here, then by being rubbed by sand and water, the black comes off and leaves the white. (Mr. Clark rubbed one, as a specimen, about a quarter of a minute.) Among the money produced, is there any fit for circulation? - Here are two half crowns which have been fit, but not being kept properly, are tarnished, but by rubbing them, they will be as good as ever in a moment; and I can venture to swear that they have been manufactured in the way I have said. Are they counterfeit coin? - Yes; they are counterfeit Mint money. Pray what effect hath this on the hands? - It turns them black, as mine are now. Mr. Knowlys. You have told us, on other occasions, that cork hath been made use of in this business; there is no cork here? - There is not; it appears as if this money hath been in currency, and bought up by the Jews, and coloured afresh, in order to give it currency again; there is no doubt of it. Court. Can you of your knowledge in this business tell us the quantity of silver may be in that half crown? - According to assays made, a half crown hath about four-pence halfpenny-worth of silver in it, and a shilling two penny-worth. FOR THE PRISONER. THOMAS FOSSEL sworn. I have worked with the prisoner at the bar five and twenty years; he is an hairdresser : I never saw any such materials about the house, as to coining; and all I know is, that he was apprehended by three men, who came with the Jews: I was not up stairs that day; and what was up stairs I know nothing about. When the officers came my master had been up to dinner I suppose about half an hour; and that morning he had been to work up and down. GUILTY , Death . Tried by the first Middlesex Jury before Mr. Justice GROSE.
The Sessions being ended, the Court proceeded to pay Sentence as follows:
Received Sentence of Death, 7, viz. Joseph Phillips , Thomas Alexander , Henry Jones , James East , William Wilson , James Betts , and Samuel Dring (this last prisoner to be drawn on a hurdle.)
Supplemental Information. James East and William Wilson were executed on Wednesday, 31st March ; and Samuel Dring died in Newgate; the rest were respited during his Majesty's pleasure.
FRANCIS DRING Grand larceny, 14th July 1802. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Transportation
520. FRANCIS DRING was indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 10th of May , nine ton weight of sugar, value 500l. and a wooden hogshead, value 2s. the property of James French . Second Count. Charging it to be the property of James Davis . Third Count. Charging it to be the property of certain persons to the Jurors unknown.(The case was opened by Mr. Const.) JAMES DAVIS sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. Where do you live? - A. My accomptinghouse is on St. Dunstan's-hill; I am a sugar-broker and merchant ; I employed Mr. Dring as a warehouseman , to house sugars, in Wheeler-street, Spital-fields. Q. Look at that order - did you order twenty hogsheads' to be housed at Mr. Dring's warehouse? - A. I did. Court. Q. Did you ever see them there? - A. I cannot say I saw those particular casks there. Q. When was that order given? - A. On the 13th of October. JAMES BRIDGMAN sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. What are you? - A. I work in Mr. Dring's warehouse. Q. Do you remember going for any sugar of Mr. Davis's? - A. Yes. Q. Look at that order - did you go for twenty hogsheads of sugar? - A. Yes. Q. What did you do with them? - A. I took them to Mr. Dring's warehouse. Q. By that order from Mr. Davis? - A. Yes. Q. Did the hogsheads appear to be all tight? - A. Yes, they did. Q. Did you, at any time afterwards, see them in the warehouse? - A. Yes. Q. Did you afterwards sec them in any other situation than tight? - A. Yes, a good while after; when it was found out, I saw a great many of them empty; I saw three of them first. Q. Did you tell Mr. Davis of it? - A. I did. Q. SAMUEL- JOHN DOBSON sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. What are you? - A. I am servant to Mr. Dring; these casks of sugar came to Mr. Dring's before I came there. Q. Do you remember any casks in the warehouse marked I diamond F? - A. Yes. Q. Do you know whose property they were? - A. No, I do not. Q. Do you remember any of these casks being opened? - A. I do. Q. Who opened them? - A. According to my master's orders, sometimes I opened them, and sometimes he opened them himself. Q. Do you remember the opening of any particular cask - can you separate any particular day? - A. No, I cannot. Q. At the time that they were opened, was your master privy to it? - A. Yes, he was there. Q. Was there any one time when the whole contents of a cask were taken out in any one day? - A. Yes, and put into barrels and casks. Q. Did he ever empty a hogshead in a day? - A. Yes, there has been a hogshead emptied in a day. Q. Do you know the weight of an hogshead? - A. The common run, I believe, is about fifteen hundred weight. Q. Do you remember, at any time, more than one hogshead in one day? - A. No, not more than one hogshead in one day. Q. What became of the sugar that was so taken? - A. It was sent, according to my master's order, to different grocers; there was a whole hogshead emptied in one day into casks, and part of it sent to Mr. Heseldine. Q. Can you fix what day that was? - A. No. Q. Did you ever hear from your master whose property that sugar was? - A. His own. Q. Were any samples of this sugar drawn? - A. I did not see any. Court. Q. The hogshead itself was never sent? - A. The hogshead was left behind. Q. How was that hogshead marked? - A. I diamond F. THOMAS HESELDINE sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. Where do you live? - A. In Lamb-street, Spital-fields. Q. Do you know Mr. Dring? - A. Yes. Q. Do you remember buying any sugar of him? - A. Yes. Q. At what time? - A. At different times; I cannot say as to any particular day. Q. You have been examined before? - A. Yes, but I did not then speak to a particular day; I could not. Q. Don't you keep books? - A. Yes. Q. Don't you make entries? - A. Sometimes I do, and sometimes I do not. Q. How came you not to make an entry of this? - A. It was weighed, and I paid for it immediately. Q. That is not your constant practice in your business? - A. Yes, I did it the other day; I keep no account of sugar; if I go to the refiner's, there is the money for it. Q. And you cannot, by your books, afertain any thing with respect to this sugar? - A. No. Cross-examined by Mr. Alley. Q. Your mode of buying sugar is by the whole hogshead at a time? - A. Yes. Q. Therefore, what you bought of Mr. Dring, must have been a whole hogshead? - A. Yes. Mr. Const. Q. Did you ever have delivered to you a whole hogshead at a time? - A. Yes. Q. Do you mean to say you ever had a hogshead in your life, or that it could come into your house? - A. Yes, surely I have. Court. Q. If you bought nothing but a whole hogshead, you had none brought in casks? - A. There was one, that, at my request, was put into a rice-barrel, for the greater facility of carriage. Mr. Alley. Q. Your original purchase was a whole hogshead? - A. Yes. Q. You had been in Mr. Dring's warehouse? - A. Yes. Q. Were there not a great variety of hogsheads in the warehouse? - A. I suppose 1500 hogsheads. SAMUEL KING sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. How old are you? - A. Turned of thirteen. Q. Were you employed in Mr. Dring's warehouse? - Mr. Gurney. Q. Do you know what you are sworn to? - A. Yes. Q. What would be the consequence of a bad oath? - A. I should go to a bad place. Mr. Const. Q. Were you employed to do any thing in Mr. Dring's warehouse? - A. Yes, knocking in the heads. Q. Do you remember any casks in the warehouse with the mark I diamond F upon them? - A. Yes. Q. Do you remember a cask being opened? - A. Yes. Q. At what time? - A. I cannot say at what time. Q. Do you remember seeing Dobson open one? - A. Yes. Q. And what was done with it? - A. Put into casks, and sent to the grocers. Mr. Const. Q. (To Mr. Davis.) I believe I asked you if that order was your writing? - A. It is. Q. How were these casks marked? - A. I diamond F. Q. Had Mr. Dring any power or authority from you to sell sugar? - A. None whatever. Q. Tell us how you found the casks afterwards? - A. Two of Mr. Dring's men came to me, and, in consequence of their information, I went there. Q. When was that? - A. In May last. Q. You had been absent from business, I believe, some time before? - A. Yes, I had. Q. In what condition did you find your goods? - A. Fifteen hogsheads were quite gone, one hogshead removed, and the other four in part empty. Q. At that time you called upon Mr. Dring to make up what was dificient by an action - A. Yes. Q. And upon information that you received, you were advised to proceed as you have now done? - A. Yes. Mr. Gurney. Q. In October last, how many hogsheads did you land? - A. In the course of the year I suppose two or three hundred. Q. Twenty of which were deposited in this warehouse? - A. Yes. Q. I believe the custom is, when a sugar-broker deposits sugar with a warehouseman, he pays him a rent per ton? - A. Yes, he does. Q. What rent per ton were you to pay him? - A. Seven-pence per ton for a week, the usual rent. Q. At the time you visited the warehouse, Mr. Dring was arrested, and under confinement, at your suit? - A. He was. Q. You arrested him at Dover for this very sugar for which you now indict him? - A. Yes. Q. How long has that action been stopped? - A. I gave an order for stopping it eight or ten days ago. Q. Do you know whether that action is or not going on? - A. I don't think it can; I don't know. Court. Q. Did you give any order to the prisoner to send any sugar to Heselaine? - A. Never. Q. Did you give any order to the prisoner to send sugar to any body, and put it to your account? - A. Never, I believe. Mr. - sworn. - Examined by Mr. Const. Q. You are a solicitor, I believe, in Broad-street? - A. I am. Q. You commenced an action of trover for Mr. Davis against Mr. Dring, to recover the amount of this sugar? - A. I did. Q. Has that action been stopped? - A. Yes, here is the rule; (produces it, dated Thursday, the 8th of July.) Q. It is dated before the bill was found? - A. Yes. Cross-examined by Mr. Gurney. Q. When was it served? - A. I do not know; the first appointment appears to be the 12th of July. The prisoner left his defence to his Counsel, and called four witnesses, who gave him a good character. GUILTY , aged 30. Transported for seven years . Second Middlesex Jury, before Mr. Recorder. theft from a specified place, 17th February 1808.
JOHN DRING Pocketpicking, 28th June 1820. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Transportation
749. JOHN DRING was indicted for stealing, on the 27th of May , one handkerchief, value 1 s., the goods of William Denby , from his person . WILLIAM DENBY . I am a carpet-manufacturer , and live in Union-street, Borough. On the 27th of May I was coming from Throgmorton-street , and at the corner of the Auction Mart I was told my pocket had been picked. I felt, and missed my handkerchief. A gentleman pointed the prisoner out, I went to him, and asked if he had got my handkerchief? he said No, the other boy had it. I saw no other boy, secured him, and saw the handkerchief found in his bosom. (Property produced and sworn to.) THOMAS SMITH . I was in Throgmorton-street, and saw Mr. Denby with the prisoner behind him. I did not see him take the handkerchief, but saw him put one into his jacket. He crossed towards the Bank, I pointed him to Denby. I took him to the Mansion House, and saw the handkerchief found on him. JOHN HESKETH . I am an officer. I found the handkerchief under the prisoner's jacket. I found another round his neck, and two in his bosom.
GUILTY . Aged 15. Transported for Life . London Jury, before Mr. Common Sergeant.
THOMAS RICHARD DRING Stealing from master, 3rd July 1834. Verdict: Not Guilty
950. THOMAS RICHARD DRING was indicted for stealing, on the 21st of May , 19 yards of linen, value 38s., the goods of James Tidmarsh and another, his masters . JAMES TIDMARSH. I am a linen-draper , and live in Regent-street . I have one partner - the prisoner was in our service twelve months. On the 20th of May, I saw a paper parcel on one of our muslin wrappers, and found it contained some Irish linen, partly cut up for shirts - I inquired aloud in the shop who it belonged to - the prisoner said it was his, and I gave it him - I afterwards looked through the books to see if any such linen had been entered to him - I found it had not - I inquired of each young man if they had sold the prisoner any linen - they said they had not - I then called the prisoner up-stairs, and asked how he became possessed of the linen - he said it was a piece of cloth which he had from his employer whom he lived with at Bristol - I said I felt assured it was our linen, and asked him where it was, that I might see it - he said it was not in his possession, as he had given it out to be made into shirts to a woman, but he did not know where she lived - but when he found I was quite positive, he said it might be a mistake, as a friend of his named Handley had bought some Irish of him about six months before - I discharged the prisoner, and went to Mr. Handley. Cross-examined by MR. PHILLIPS. Q. Was not that linen in the shop where it could be seen? A. Yes; he told me the woman who had the shirts to make would call the next morning for a pattern shirt, and she did call for it - Mr. Handley told me that he had bought a piece of linen at our shop, which the prisoner's sister had to cut up for shirts; and that he had a piece which he had bought of his former master. MARY KING . I called on the prisoner at the prosecutor's house in the morning, for this linen to make up into shirts, and the next day for the pattern shirt. Cross-examined. Q. I believe some of this linen was cut up into shirts? A. Yes; four of them were - there was no concealment about them. Witnesses for the Defence. EDWARD HANDLEY . Some months ago, I gave the prisoner two sovereigns to get me a piece of cloth of his employer, similar to one which he had had for himself of his former master - his sister had to cut them both out, as I wanted to have mine the same pattern as his. MR. TIDMARSH re-examined. Q. Do you know whether you had sold Mr. Handley any cloth? A. I have no account of it - it is customary to allow shopmen to purchase at wholesale prices - I find no entry in our book of this, but if the prisoner had paid ready money it would not have been entered. JAMES DOWLING . I was porter to the prosecutor. I went with a parcel of some things which had been purchased at the shop, to the prisoner's sister in Stamford-street, Edgeware-road, by the prisoner's direction - I received this parcel from his sister, wrapped in the same paper that I had taken the parcel to the house in - I took it to my masters, and laid it on the counter - it was then about five o'clock, and day-light. NOT GUILTY .
JOHNSON DRING Forgery, 3rd April 1843. Verdict: Guilty pleaded guilty Punishment: No Punishment sentence respited
1160. JOHNSON DRING , was indicted for feloniously, and without lawful excuse, having in his custody and possession a forged note, purporting to be a note of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England; to which he pleaded GUILTY . Aged 32.— Judgment Respited.
CHARLES DRING Theft from a specified place, 26th October 1846. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
2073. CHARLES DRING was indicted for stealing 1 brooch, value 15l., the goods of John Calf, in his dwelling-house. JOHN CALF . I keep the Round Table public-house, in St. Martin's-court, Leicester-square. On the night of the 24th of Sept. the prisoner slept in a bed in my house—soon after he was gone the next morning, I missed a diamond brooch—I had worn it the day before, and left it in my shirt in my bed-room—this now produced is it, it is mine. Cross-examined by MR. HORRY. Q. Where had you worn it the day before? A. In my shirt-bosom, in my own house—I took my shirt off at night, but did not put it on the next morning—I had the brooch safe in my shirt when I went to bed—it was safe in the shirt when I got up the next morn ing, at half-past eight o'clock—I saw it in the shirt on the chair when I was dressing—I missed it about a quarter-past nine—the prisoner slept on the same floor as me—I did not see him leave. JOHN GILBERT COX . I am a pawnbroker, and live in High Holborn, On the morning of the 25th of Sept., about half-past nine, this brooch was offered in pawn to me by the prisoner—I stopped it. Cross-examined. Q. Had you had other persons there before? A. Yes, and several afterwards—the prisoner said he had found it—I said I was bound to detain it, as it was a valuable brooch—he offered it for 3l.—it was worth 7l. or 8l. at least—he did not seem to know the value of it. GUILTY . Aged 26.— Confined Nine Months. (There was another indictment against the prisoner
ELLIS DRING, Simple larceny, 18th August 1851.Verdict: Guilty pleaded guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
1602. ELLIS DRING , stealing 2 printed books, value 35s.; the goods of John Blackie and another: to which he pleaded GUILTY . Aged 42.— Confined Six Months.
MARY ANNE DRING,Coining offences, 8th June 1863. Verdict: Guilty pleaded guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
786. MARY ANNE DRING (45), was indicted for a like offence, to which she PLEADED GUILTY — Confined Twelve Months.
JOHN DRING, Theft from a specified place, 30th January 1865. Verdict: Guilty lesser offence Punishment: Imprisonment - penal servitude
219. JOHN DRING (52), was indicted for feloniously breaking and entering the warehouse of Edward McMorland, and stealing 196 shawls, his property. Second Count, feloniously receiving the same. MR. F. H. LEWIS conducted the Prosecution, and MR. THOMPSON the Defence. WILLIAM GARNHAM . I am a draper of 2, Pimlico-walk, Hoxton—on 5th September last, the prisoner came to me—he said he believed I was a buyer of shawls, and he had been recommended to me by Mr. Wilson of Barbican, and could I buy them—I asked how many he had—he said he had 200—I asked him what price he wanted for them—he said he would take 5s. 6d. a piece for them—I said they would not do for me at that price, and I offered him is at first—I afterwards agreed to give him is 3d.—he was to bring them in the next day—he did so, and when counted there were 196—I bought them at 4s. 3d. a-piece; they came to 41l. 13s.—I asked him for a receipt—he asked me for a bit of paper, he said he had not a bill-head with him—I gave him a bit of note-paper, and he made out this receipt—(Read: "Bought of Mr. F. Palmer, 196 shawls at is. 3d., 41l. 13s., signed, Frederick Palmer.")—I sold some of them afterwards to Messrs. Woof and Farish, drapers, of Shoreditch, 193, I think, at 5s. 9d. each—in the end I was given into custody—I undertook to find the man, and found the prisoner—we were a fortnight about finding him. Cross-examined. Q. Do you keep a shop? A. Yes; I have kept it six years, continuously—I had never seen the prisoner before 5th September—I know Mr. Wilson of Barbican—he is a draper and milliner—I travel round town and serve him with goods—the prisoner brought samples on 5th September—I can't swear how many—I know he said there was one of each sort, and there were different coloured borders—I can't say exactly how many different sorts there were—the interview on 5th September lasted about a quarter of an hour; it took place in my shop—I agreed as to the price that day—I keep a young man to look after my pony and go out with me—I keep none to serve in the shop; my wife serves in the shop—I did not want the shawls to sell in my own shop—when the prisoner brought the shawls there was another person with him—I dare say the interview that day lasted three-quarters of an hour—I gave that man a penny to go and buy the receipt stamp—I had never seen that man before—I never went to the New Cut about this—I never went out of my shop till I first saw the goods—I never went with Wilson over the water about these shawls—I never saw Wilson at all about these shawls, not till three days after I had bought them; I then told him I was much obliged to him for sending the party to me with the shawls, and I had bought them—they laid on my counter for two days—I have a friend a traveller, who travels round town, and he took them to all the City houses to try to sell them for me—I sold them "to a person in Shoreditch for 5s. 9d. each—I have got a larger profit for things than that—I did not decidedly understand the goods; I am not a shawl buyer—I buy anything—I have been in my shop six years, and out of that six years sixteen months as a draper—I had no knowledge of the drapery trade before I went into that shop—I never had any trouble about any transaction of this sort before—I was never a witness before—I know Robert Anderson—I buy anything in my line—I generally buy them in the City, or else I go about looking after job lots—sometimes I have them brought to my place, but I thoroughly know who I buy them of it was Anderson who came with the prisoner when he brought the goods; that was the man I gave the penny to for the receipt-stamp—I had never seen Anderson before—I afterwards bought a quantity more shawls of Anderson; that was on 15th September—I bought ninety-three of him then—I gave 2s. 10d. each for them—I have not got the receipt he gave me; I had a trouble to find this one—when the police came to my place my receipts and invoices were all turned over and hauled about—I have never seen Anderson since 15th September—I have been about to find him and made all the inquiries I could—they were both present when I paid the 41l.—I won't swear who took the money; I put the money down and saw the receipt signed—it was signed by the prisoner and given to me—he wrote it all out—not all at the same time; there was an interval of about seven minutes between the writing out of the invoice and the putting of the stamp on—the stamp was put on wet and was signed wet—there was only one inkstand on the counter—I believe it was written with the same pen; there were two pens—I won't swear that he wrote it with the same pen, because the pen was dropped—I went to the prisoner's house in Oxford-terrace, Clapham-road with the officers and another person, who I believe calls himself the lawyer's clerk; I never saw him before—I did not go over to the New Cut, nor did I see any of those shawls there—the shawls were brought in a cart—there was a boy besides Anderson—Anderson and the boy brought the things into my shop; the prisoner stood inside—to the best of my belief the prisoner took the money—he was acting as the master and the other seemed to be acting as man. CHARLOTTE GARNHAM . I am the wife of the last witness—I recollect the sale of the shawls—I went up-stairs and brought down the money—I brought down 40l. odd—I can't exactly say how much more—the prisoner took up the money—he gave the name of Palmer—the prisoner called on several occasions afterwards—Mr. Garnham was not then at home. Cross-examined. Q. Were you not in the parlour? A. I was some part of the time; not the whole time—my husband went out to look at the shawls—he was away about twenty minutes—that was on the first occasion—I believe they went to 88, Murray-street—I only know by what they said—the prisoner brought the samples into the shop on the 5th and on the 6th my husband went to Murray-street to look at the lot—I know that from what they said—the shawls were brought in twenty minutes afterwards—I was in the shop, all the time I think, until the money was paid—I then went into the parlour—I was in and out—I saw the money paid and the receipt signed. GEORGE LEGG . I went with Hann and Garnham to 45, Oxford-terrace, Clapham-road—I there saw the prisoner—I addressed him by the name of Palmer—he said, "My name is not Palmer"—I said, "I know that, your name is Dring"—I told him that I was a police-officer, and that I had come about some shawls that he had sold to Garnham on 6th September—he said he had never sold him any, and never had any in his possession—I then said to Garnham, "Is that the man that sold you the shawls?"—he said, "Yes"—at that time I let Hann, another officer, in at the front door, who put some questions to him which I did not hear—I searched the place and took the prisoner to the station—next day in going to the police-court in a cab, with the shawls, the prisoner said he never stole those shawls, but he knew them that did—he said he did not carry the shawls into Gornham's shop; the other man did. Cross-examined. Q. What time of day was it that you went to Oxford-terrace? A. I went there between 7 and 8 o'clock—I saw a man acting as his servant, bring a horse and chaise to the door, and the prisoner and another man go away—I waited there till he returned in the afternoon—I do not know Anderson—I have been in search of him—the prisoner never said to me, "Why don't you take Anderson into custody, he was the man who went by the name of Palmer?"—I did not hear what he said to Hana—there was only the prisoner and me inside the cab—Hann was outside—I searched the Oxford-terrace house—I did not find anything at all relating to this burglary—that was on the 14th December—I found a quantity of bills there like this (produced)—a lawyer's clerk went with me, at least he came there—I had been in communication with him a day or two or it might be two or three days. MR. LEWIS. Q. From what you know of the prisoner, was he a dealer in lubricating machines? A. I believe not. JAMES HANN . I accompanied Legg to 45, Oxford-terrace—I remained outside, and was afterwards admitted—after Legg had put some questions to the prisoner, I placed Garnham in front of him, and asked the prisoner if he knew that man—he said, "No, I do not"—I then took Garnham in front of the window, and took his hat off and said, "Now do you know the man?"—he said, "No; I do not"—I said, "Am I to take your answer that you never Bold this man any shawls, and that you know nothing about them"—he said, "Yes; I do not"—I then asked him how long he had left Murray-street—he said he never lived at Murray-street—he was then taken into custody. Cross-examined. Q. The first time you mentioned Murray-street, I believe you gave no particular locality? A. Yes, I did; I said Murray-street, Hoxton—Garnham had been taken into custody, and was out on bail at that time—Legg told the prisoner that he was come respecting some shawls that he had sold to Garnham—it was mentioned where Garnham lived, No. 2, Pimlico-walk, Hoxton; I think I named it myself; I know it was mentioned—this took place in the kitchen—it was rather dark, but quite light enough to recognize any one. SARAH TERRY . I am the wife of Robert Terry, a solicitor's clerk, 88, Murray-street, New North-road—the prisoner came to lodge at my house on 25th August last—he stayed till 21st September—he took the front parlour in the name of Palmer, at 4s. a week—he brought a woman with him, and several others; everybody slept in the same room, women and men too—mine is a lodging-house—the prisoner occupied that room, and other people with him—my husband gave him notice to leave. Cross-examined. Q. Who let the room to him? A. I let the room to him—there was another man with him at that time; the other man gave no name at all then—he afterwards gave my husband the name of Dring—I was not present then—I could not tell you how many men and women came; from two to three slept there—ray husband is clerk to Reighley and Gitching, of 7, Ironmonger-lane; he has been there over seven years—the woman supposed to be the prisoner's wife paid me the rent; a tall woman—there were severs other women in and out—the prisoner spoke of her as his wife. MR. LEWIS. Q. By what name did you address the prisoner? A. Mr. Palmer, and be answered me by that name. THOMAS ADDINGHAM . I reside at Gretton-place, Victoria-park, and am clerk to Mr. Brntton, Guildhall-chambers, Basinghall-street, an attorney—I have known the prisoner about eight or ten years, I should think—I have known him by several names, Dring, Palmer, and various other names; they take one another's names—I am acquainted with his handwriting—I should say this receipt is all in the prisoner's handwriting, but written at different times; the body at one time, and the signature "Frederick Palmer" at another. Cross-examined. Q. I believe you have had a great many masters during your time, have you not? A. Not more than three or four during the whole of my life—I have sometimes been engaged in prosecutions' at this Court and others—I might have had my expenses disallowed—I have been in Whitecross-street for debt—Hann, the detective, first spoke to me about this; that was the day before the prisoner was taken—he asked me if I knew a man named Dring—I have never gone by any other name—I have never gone by the name of Spencer—I was in a Mr. Spencer's employment, in Coleman-street—I have never been a witness before—I never spoke to Hann about this case before that morning—he asked me if I knew the man, and if I knew where he was—I said, "No, but I could soon find out, "and I did—I was told by one of his own lot. MR. LEWIS. Q. Are you concerned in this prosecution? A. No. WILLIAM WOOF . I am a draper, in partnership with Mr. Farish, in Shoreditch—I bought 193 shawls of Mr. Garnham, at 5s. 9d. each, which came to 55l. 9s. 9d. and most of these (produced) are the shawls I bought—I could not swear to all of them—I afterwards bought 89 more shawls of him—I sold some of the 193 to Mr. Robert Farish; I could not tell how many—I sold him a lot of shawls besides these—some of the 193 were sold to him—I bought the 193 shawls independently of any other stock from Mr. I Garnham, and gave him 5s. 9d. each for each of the shawls. Cross-examined. Q. How many of the 193 have you got there? A. I don't know how many; the police took 104 from my shop on 2d December that 104 did not include any of the 89; the difference between the 104 and 193 I had sold to Mr. Farish and other customers—I consider I gave a fair price for those shawls—I have been in the trade twenty-two years—they are a class of goods that would pass under the name of "Clearance of summer goods." MR. LEWIS. Q. You know now, do you not, that these shawls cost 24s. each? A. I have heard so. COURT. Q. Would that be a fair selling price for them retail? A. No—I sold them for 6s. 11d., those I gave 5s. 9d. for. MR. LEWIS. Q. Would you consider 24s. cost price; a fair price daring the season for them? A. I don't know; I should think not—I should think there is no real value for articles of that kind. EDWARD PASCALL . I am buyer in the shawl-department of Messrs, M'Morland and Co., of St. Paul's-churchyard—I have examined the shawls that are produced; they are the property of M'Morland and Co.—I ordered them myself—I saw them safe on the date of the burglary—the bulk of them were made to my order—24s. was the cost price of a great portion of these shawls—some of them are Llama trimmed with silk borders, some all silk, and some silk and wool, with work on them. Cross-examined. Q. When did you purchase them? A. Part of them were purchased about a year previously, the greater portion—they were not all bought of the same manufacturer—I saw them on 21st June, because we were taking stock of them—they were all prepared for stock-taking, all put into boxes and marked, and the following morning they were all gone, and in disorder—M'Morland's is not a very large concern—I have the supervision of the stock—I also make sales to retail houses—I was personally engaged on that day in taking stock—the greater bulk of the shawls were purchased a year previously—the other part were purchased during the spring season—I don't require the invoices to tell the prices, my memory is sufficient without that—I carry in my head the price of everything I look at; there are some tickets on these shawls now which were placed on them the day I took stock of them, and I can swear to them as in the writing of one of the young men, named French—I have a corresponding mark in my pocket—all of them were not marked. WILLIAM WILKINS (City-policeman, 313). I was on duty in St. Paul's—churchyard on the morning of 22d June—at ten minutes after 6 I saw Messrs. M'Morland's door on the jar; the bar and padlock had been broken off, and the inside of the door cut—I pushed the door open and went in—I found no one on the premises—on searching I found these two small crow-bars, and this knife and string, which is used for the purpose of inserting this string between the sash of the window; the string gets hold of the fastening, and the catch is pulled back, and then the window can be opened. GUILTY on the 2d Count. He also PLEADED GUILTY to having been before convicted at Westminster in April, 1852, sentence ten years' penal servitude.
MARY ANN DRING, Coining offences, 30th January 1865. Verdict: Guilty pleaded guilty Punishment: Imprisonment penal servitude 235. MARY ANN DRING (48) .
JOHN DRING, EDWIN GOLLOP, Fraud, 30th January 1865. Verdict: Not Guilty no evidence
278. JOHN DRING (52), and EDWIN GOLLOP (55) , Unlawfully conspiring together to defraud John Hunt of a mare, a chaise, and a set of harness. MR. LEWIS for the Prosecution offered no evidence. NOT GUILTY . ADJOURNED TO MONDAY, FEBRUARY 27TH, 1865
CHARLES DRING Forgery, 12th December 1892. Verdict Not Guilty no evidence;
137. CHARLES DRING (45) , Forging and uttering a cheque for £9 15s. MESSRS. BESLEY and TRAVERS HUMPHREYS Prosecuted; MR. PAUL. TAYLOR Defended. In consequence of the sudden formation of this COURT, the evidence cannot be given. NOT GUILTY . There were other indictments against the prisoner, upon which the prosecution offered no evidence. NOT GUILTY .
JOHN MOORE 23rd February 1715. Theft Verdict: Guilty theft under 1s Punishment: whipping
John Moore , of the Parish of Whitechapel , was indicted for stealing 2 Canes, and 30 Sticks , the Goods of Ann Dring , on the 15th of January last. It appear'd That during the hurry at the late dreadful Fire in Tower street, the Goods were lost; and the Prisoner's house being search'd, they were found there. In his Defence he said he had been working at the Fire, and going over Tower hill, a Man gave them him to carry; but having no Witness, that was not believ'd, and he was found Guilty to the value of 10 d.
SARAH CROUCH 22nd February 1727. grand larceny Verdict: Guilty
Sarah Crouch , of St. Giles's in the Fields , was indicted for stealing a Silver Watch and Chain, value 4 l. 10 s. on the 23rd of Jan. last, the Property of John Dring . It appeared that the Prosecutor and the Prisoner being both of a loving Disposition, had agreed to go together to a Bawdy House, and that the Prosecutor awaking at Three in the Morning, mist both the Watch and his Bedfellow; but the Watch he lost, which may learn him another Time to be a little more watchful. An Evidence for the Prosecutor depos'd. That he saw the Prisoner some Days after with one ( Nell Vincent ) who was laughing at how they Nickt the Culls that were so credulous to trust them; and that then she the Prisoner at the Bar, boasted of her biting a Cull at the Three Compasses , on the 23d of Jan. which Watch she had then, and was going to pawn it. The Prisoner in her Defence said, That the Prosecutor was a rude Fellow, and had pickt her up, and that notwithstanding her known Modesty, she had enough to do to keep her self honest in his Company; she confess'd her going into the House with him, and drinking Gin and Ale in the Bed-Chamber, but she did not stay long there, for the Prosecutor gave her a Shilling to fetch some Rods to whip him with, and the People being in Bed, she could get none; upon which, she said, she left him: But it appearing otherways by the honest Landlord (asking his Pardon) at the Three Compasses in Sweet Saint Giles's , the Jury found her guilty
JANE STEWARD Grand larceny, 2nd July 1766. Verdict: Not Guilty
375. Jane Steward was indicted for stealing four guineas , the property of Samuel Dring , May 30 . The prosecutor was called, and did not appear. Acquitted .
WILLIAM THOMAS Highway robbery, 7th July 1784. Verdict: Not Guilty
762. WILLIAM THOMAS was indicted, for that he, on the 21st of June last, in the King's highway, with a certain offensive weapon called a pistol, which he in his right-hand had and held, upon Benjamin Dring unlawfully, wilfully, maliciously, and feloniously, did make an assault, with a felonious intent his monies from his person and against his will feloniously to steal . The witnesses examined apart at the request of the prisoner.
BENJAMIN DRING sworn. I am a post-boy ; the gentleman, the prisoner, rode up to me, and stopped me on the 21st of June. Court. How was he mounted? - Not very well. What was the colour of his horse? - As nigh as I can guess it was a dark brown, or bay. What time of night was it? - About half past ten at night, as nigh as I can guess. Was it moon-light? - It was not. Was it a cloudy night? - Yes. How was you stopped? - I was driving a chaise, there were three people in it. Could you see very well that night? - Why it was rather cloudy, so that I could not see so well. Had you ever seen the prisoner at the bar the night before you was stopped? - No. Was it light enough to see how he was dressed? - As far as I can make out he had a light drab coloured surtout great coat on. Can you describe any thing else? - No; he followed the chaise through Ball's-pound gate, I was coming to town. Had you observed him before he came to the chaise? - Yes, I saw him before about five hundred yards, and I drove on as fast as I could, and passed him. How often had you passed him? - Only once. In what manner did he come up to you? - He rode up quite opposite to me, and desired me to stop. Which side of the chaise? - The right-hand side, near the opposite horse to that I was upon, he was just opposite my horse's head; he desired me to stop three or four times. When you passed him once, had you any time to take notice of him, till he came to stop you again? - No, I had not time, I went on, and he damned my eyes for not stopping, and presented a pistol to my head; seeing the patrols so near, he made off directly. How do you know he presented a pistol? - Because I saw the nozzle of it as plain as I see you now. What size was it? - It seemed to be a large one. Are you pretty sure it was a pistol? - Yes. Did you see any thing but the nozzle? - No. Did he ask you for any thing? - No. Jury. When he put the pistol to your head, did he go round your horse's head and go to the chaise? - Yes. Prisoner. I was tried here on Friday for a similar offence, and the post-boy could not then swear to my person. (See No. 740 and 741.) Court to Post-boy. How was that; did you ever say that you did not know this man? - I never said so. Did you give evidence against him before? - Yes, on Friday. Prisoner. My Lord, I refer to the notes of Mr. Hodgson, the short-hand writer, if your Lordship will direct him to read his notes. This boy has been with the thief-takers since, and they have persuaded him to swear to me. Jury. My Lord, we tried this prisoner on Friday, and we perfectly remember the evidence that the boy gave. Court to Jury. Gentlemen, I believe it is unnecessary to go on with this prosecution; this is an indictment upon a particular act of parliament, in the seventh year of George III . chap. 32, which says, That if any person shall, after a certain day therein mentioned, unlawfully assault any person with a felonious intent to rob them, then every such person shall be adjudged guilty of felony. The prisoner is charged with making an assault upon Benjamin Dring , with intention to rob him, and the account he gives is, that he being a postillion, the prisoner rode up to him, and presented a pistol and bid him stop, but asked him for nothing, he never demanded his money, but damned him, and went up to the people in the chaise; therefore, supposing you believe the prisoner to be the man, which is by no means clear on the evidence, it is very clear he did not mean to rob the post-boy; but if you are clearly satisfied that he meant to rob the post-boy, and nobody else, then it will be a question whether he speaks to his identity or not. [NOT] GUILTY . Tried by the London Jury before Mr. ROSE.
JAMES NELSON Grand larceny, 17th February 1825. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Transportation
Before Mr. Recorder. 420. JAMES NELSON was indicted for stealing, on the 30th of September , a coat, value 15 s., and a pelisse, value 15 s. , the goods of William Dring .
WILLIAM DRING. I live at No. 2, New Exchange-court, Strand . I have nearly lost my sight, and turn a wheel for a cutler . On the 30th of September I lost a coat and a pelisse from my room, which is on the ground floor - I had brushed them a very few minutes before they were taken, which was about eight o'clock in the evening - the house is let out to lodgers, and the street door is sometimes open. The prisoner came in, and set down as a friend; we had a pint of beer, and he staid about a quarter of an hour: he got up from the table, and went towards the fire - he then returned, and took my coat and a pelisse from a nail in the room, and got out of the door before I could get to it. I and my wife met him again on the 12th of January - she took hold of his arm, but he got from her - and was stopped by some other person.
ANN DRING . I am the wife of the prosecutor. I saw the prisoner come into our room; I went for a pot of porter by his desire, and before I returned he was gone - my husband cried out, "That man has robbed me:" he was not then out of sight; some persons followed him, but he got away - we met him again on the 12th of January, in Broad-street, St. Giles's; he was secured. We have never seen the property since. GUILTY . Aged 28. Transported for Seven Years .
JOHN PINKS HOLLOWAY Forgery, 5th September 1833. Verdict: Not Guilty
1387. JOHN PINKS HOLLOWAY was indicted for feloniously, forging an acceptance on a bill of exchange, with intent to defraud Thomas Dring , against the statute, &c. 2nd COUNT for uttering the same. 3rd and 4th COUNTS stating it to be with intent to defraud Henry Usher .
THOMAS DRING. I am a ginger beer manufacturer , and live in Star-street, Edgeware-road . The prisoner took a public-house of me, the White Hart, Drury-lane; he took possession of it on the 8th of January; he took the fixtures and utensils, which came to 100l.; he paid me 30l. in cash, and two bills, one for 30l. at two months, and one for 40l. at four months; those bills were not honoured; and I promised to renew the 40l. for two months with a substantial acceptance, which he promised to get, and he enclosed this bill for 40l., on the 12th of May, in a letter, which was brought to me by Frederick Jervis- I had seen the prisoner write before, and I have every reason to believe it is his writing - I told Jervis the bill was not indorsed; it is accepted by Henry Usher . Cross-examined by MR. CLARKSON. Q. When did you first learn the bill was a forgery? A. I think on the 12th or 13th of May - I know that a bill of exchange is not negotiable without an indorsement - I put it into Mr. Williams's hands to try to get the money, but I received nothing for it. Q. Long after you had ascertained that this was a forgery, did you not take from the prisoner a written agreement to return the public-house, and fixtures, and all the property you had sold him? A. No, I did not; Mr. Handley took it for me; he is a gentleman, who did live at the Hope, and now he lodges at my house - I know Mr. William Pinks, I don't know that he is rich, they told me he was godfather to the prisoner - I don't know when I went to Mr. Pinks to try to get the money, it might be a week afterwards. Q. When you sent Mr. Handley to get re-possession, did you not engage to hold the prisoner harmless? A. I cannot charge my memory; I did not propose it; I caused it to be proposed, and he entered into a written agreement, but I never said it was because I thought I could get the money of old Pinks; I had received the 30l. of him in cash at first, but I should have been no great gainer if I had had the rent and taxes to pay. Q. Did you not afterwards fly from that agreement, and say you would not do it? A. It was proposed to Mr. Usher, and I would not accept it, because I understood he had given a cognovit to pay so much a week to somebody. Q. If you found out in May that the bill was a forgery, please to give the jury some honest reason why you put it off till September? A. He promised he would pay me if I would not proceed, I said if he would pay me the 40l. I would forgive him the 30l. - I went once to Mr. Pink with Usher, and Usher asked him if he would assist Holloway- I told him it was a forgery, and if he could not settle the bill, he must take the course of the law - I don't know that I told him I would prosecute Holloway, but I think I said if he would pay I would not prosecute. Q. Did you not go to Holloway, after you had ascertained that the bill was a forgery, and after you had agreed to take back all the property, and sacked the 30l. which he had paid - did you not say that you could not make up your mind to do it, because you had lost your wife in the house? A. I might have done so, I would not swear that I did not; I don't recollect it; I have said so to other persons. Q. Did you not afterwards propose that he should execute a bill of sale to Usher of all the property, and that Usher, whose name was forged, should befriend him in consequence of it? A. It was proposed in the presence of Usher and me, but I would not accept of it. Q. Was not the condition that the man should deliver up all the property in the public house, to be followed by giving up the bill of exchange? and after having bound him by an agreement in writing, and led him to expect that you would deliver up the bill you are now prosecuting him for it? A. Certainly, I should be very happy to get the money. Q. In the month of July did you go to the prisoner's wife in his absence, and ask her if old Pinks could be induced to make up this bill? A. I don't know that I used the word "Old Pinks," I might have said, Mr. Pinks, but I don't recollect it. COURT. Q. Can you satisfy us, why you, who knew this bill was forged in May, should now appear to prosecute in September? A. From an impression that he would furnish means to take the bill out of my hands - if he had paid it, I would not have prosecuted him.FREDERICK JERVIS . On the 12th of May, the prisoner asked me to take a letter to the prosecutor - I took it, the prosecutor opened it, and I saw a 40l. bill in it. EDWARD HANDLEY . I took this bill of exchange to Mr. Usher about the middle of May - I called on the prisoner the next day, or the day after that, and told him it was a forgery, he acknowledged it was, but said, he was in hopes of providing for it when it became due. Cross-examined. Q. What are you? A. I live upon my means - I did keep the Hope Tavern - I took the agreement to the prisoner for him to sign it, to give up the house to Mr. Dring again - I will not swear whether it was Mr. Dring's writing or mine - I cannot call to mind whether the condition was that if the prisoner signed it the bill should be given up - I took it and I think the prisoner signed it, and I think it stated that if he gave up the house, the bill should be given up - I don't know what I did with the agreement - Mr. Dring would not agree to it. HENRY USHER . I am a packer - I live at No. 29, Chicksand-street, Whitechapel. This acceptance is not my writing. Cross-examined. Q. Have you been a tolerable large dealer in bills of exchange? A. No - I don't know whether I ever signed one in my life - I have not been in the habit of giving accommodation acceptances. Q. Upon your solemn oath did you accept one for 26l. 10s., for the prisoner? A. I cannot say the sum, it was never uttered - it was destroyed in my presence by the prisoner - I never gave an acceptance in blank - I took a bill of sale of the prisoner, of all the things in the public-house, because I lent him 55l., and had to pay 30l., which I was bound for him to the distiller - I did not tell the prisoner if he would give me a bill of sale I would befriend him - I did not know, but that he had paid Mr. Dring - I took the bill of sale about the 26th or 27th of May - I have sold the property - I went to old Pinks with Mr. Dring to speak to him because I understood he was a friend to the prisoner; I did not ask Pinks for the money - I cannot recollect going to the prisoner's wife when he was not at home. EDWARD HENRY BURRIDGE . I apprehended the prisoner on the 8th of August. NOT GUILTY . theft from a specified place, 4th September 1834.
JOHN BURTON Simple larceny, 23rd August 1841. Verdict: Guilty with recommendation Punishment: Imprisonment
2251. JOHN BURTON was indicted for stealing, on the 15th of August, 4 sovereigns and 2 half-sovereigns, the moneys of Ruth Dring.
FRANCIS DRING . I live at Limehouse, and am in the milk line. The prisoner lived five months with me—he had to go about with milk—I left him at home, on the 15th of August, to mind the house while I went to chapel.
RUTH DRING . I am the daughter of Francis Dring. On the 15th of August the prisoner was at home—I had a drawer, in which I had the money stated—it was safe on the Thursday before—there were four sovereigns, two half-sovereigns, and 15s. 6d. in silver—I missed the gold—the silver was not taken—I suspected the prisoner, and asked him whether he had been to my drawer—he said no, he had not—I told the policeman—some of the money has been found, and the prisoner owned to it at the station. Prisoner. They frightened me; I did not know what I was saying. DANIEL DONOVAN (police-constable K 319.) The prosecutrix told me of this—I asked the prisoner about it—he said he knew nothing of it—I took him to the station, and found on him a key and a sixpence—I went to his master's, and found the key would not fit the drawer that the money was taken from. CHARLES WHITE (police-constable K 259.) I was in the station—the prisoner said, "I have taken the money; three sovereigns are in my box, and two I have spent"—I then went to No. 4, Waterloo-street, broke a box open, and found three sovereigns in it. (The prisoner received a good character.) GUILTY. Aged 16.—Recommended to mercy. — Confined Three Months.
JOHN IRVINA Theft from a specified place, 7th April 1845. Verdict: Not Guilty
965. JOHN IRVINA was indicted for stealing 1 ladder, value 5s., the goods of Henry William Dring, in a vessel, in a port of entry and discharge. CHARLES JAMES ARNOLD . I am ship-keeper of the schooner Bailard, which was lying in the East and West India Docks. On the 22nd of March I lost a three-step ladder, which I had seen safe on the deck at three o'clock that day—I asked the prisoner who was mate of the Providence, which was lying alongside of the schooner, if he had got my ladder—he said, no—on the Thursday following I got an officer, aud went with him on board the Providence—I saw the ladder found on board the Providence aft the pump-well—it belonged to Messrs. Foster and Smith, African merchants, and owners of the schooner—the captain's name is Henry William Dring. Cross-examined by MR. BALLANTINE. Q. Had you the charge of the schooner? A. Yes—tbe captain was out of the vessel—a vessel called the Sea Witch was lying astern of the Providence—have heard that the persons on board that vessel bad stolen the ladder belonging to the Providence—tbe prisoner said that as they had taken his ladder, he had taken mine—he would derive no advantage from the ladder, it was for the use of the ship. NOT GUILTY .
JOHN BARRETT Embezzlement, 7th July 1845. Verdict: Not Guilty
1493. JOHN BARRETT was indicted for embezzling 1s. 2d., the monies of Francis Dring, his master. JANE ANN NEWBY . I paid the prisoner 1s. 2d. on the 17th of June for milk, for Mrs. Cook, my mistress—I paid it him for his master.
FRANCIS DRING . I am a cow-keeper, and live in Penny-fields—the prisoner was my servant. I have never received this 1s. 2d. from him—I gave him five pots of milk to go out on Tuesday, the 17th of June—he came home drunk, and did not offer to pay roe anything—I told him to go to bed—I never saw him again till the Sunday, when be passed by like a shot, and said, "I am coming to settle with you," but he did pot come, and he has never been with me since. Prisoner. I went in on Tuesday morning, the 17th, and he said if I was not out of his place he would kick me out; I put my band into my pocket, and offered him the money, and said I would settle with him. Witness. I did not tell him I would kick him out, nor order him to leave my house—I never received a penny of the money—he never offered it me. NOT GUILTY .
WILLIAM ARCHER Murder, 25th April 1750.Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Death
320. William Archer , was indicted, for that he with a certain gun loaded with powder and shot, wilfully, feloniously and of malice aforethought, did shoot off at Anthony Higgins , with an Intent the said Anthony to kill or murder , March 3 ....................... William Dring . I have known the Prisoner five years; several times, within that time, he has been out of his senses; about a year ago he was; I went to see him, I talked to him, he fell a raving and swearing, saying, I'll make a hole big enough, laying hold of the chimney, saying, Jack, come through, come thro', he was thus for several days.
JACOB JONAS Grand larceny, 23rd February 1780. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment hard labour
149. JACOB JONAS was indicted for stealing a wooden trunk, value 5 s. a silk gown, value 3 l. a stuff gown, value 40 s. a silk petticoat, value 10 s. a silk cloak, value 6 s. a pair of silver shoe-buckles, value 5 s. a pair of silver shoe-buckles set with stones, value 6 s. a smelling bottle, value 2 s. five muslin aprons, value 3 l. a dimity petticoat, value 3 s. a silk handkerchief, value 1 s. two cambrick aprons, value 18 d. two pair of ruffles, value 3 s. a small heart set in gold, value 10 s. four pair of cotton stockings, value 2 s. four linen shifts, value 12 s. and three cambrick handkerchiefs with narrow edging, value 12 s. the property of Stephen Fromantin , January 15th SIMON DRING sworn. I am a constable. I live next door but one. I heard the cry of stop thief. I went out to see what was the matter; they gave me charge of the prisoner. I took the prisoner in one hand, and the trunk in the other; these are the straps which were cut away (producing them). . ..........Dring. When I had him in custody, he attempted to stab me with a knife; he cut my coat in six places.
WILLIAM THOMAS Highway robbery, 7th July 1784. Verdict: Not Guilty
Related Material: Associated Records User Wiki: Corrections; Add Information 740. WILLIAM THOMAS was indicted for maliciously and feloniously assaulting, on the King's highway, one John Lowe , with a certain offensive weapon or instrument called a pistol, with a felonious intent he monies of the said John from his person and against his will feloniously to steal . ..........BENJAMIN DRING sworn. Do you remember being with the last witness, John Lowe , on the 21st of June? - Yes. You was driving him in a chaise? - Yes, the gentleman followed me and bid me to stop, to the best of my knowledge that is the gentleman. Can you swear it to be him? - To the best of my knowledge that is him; he represented a pistol to me, and said damn your eyes, stop! I immediately stopped, he made a return to go back to the chaise, and he was pursued, but he rode away. What did he say to the people in the chaise? - Nothing at all, he did not say or do any thing to them. Court. Gentlemen of the Jury, this evidence will not do, for the indictment is not for an assault with intent to rob the postillion, but for an intent to rob John Lowe .
Theft from a specified place, 1st July 1801. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Transportation
600. MARGARET GILES was indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 20th of June , a pair of sheets, value 10s. a blanket, value 2s. a bolster, value 5s. a pillow, value 1s. and a pillow-case, value 1s. the property of George Cruslac , in a lodging-room ............... MARY DRING sworn. - I saw the things in the room the day she went away.
JOHN BOTFIELD Theft from a specified place Verdict: Guilty theft under 40s Punishment: Imprisonment house of correction;
177. JOHN BOTFIELD was indicted for feloniously stealing on the 15th of January , three glass mirrors, value 1 l. 4 s. and a broken glass mirror, value 7 s. the property of James Petter and James Oakey , in their dwelling house .......................... . THOMAS DRING . Q. What are you. - A. I am a mirror maker. Q. Look at these plates and tell me whether you have seen them before. - A Yes. Q. From whom did you receive them. - A. From the prisoner Botfield, about the 12th or 13th of January; he brought me a twelve inch; he asked me if I would silver it for him. Q. Was that either of these. - A. No. Q. Confine yourself to these. - A. I do not know that I could go on with my story without mentioning that; I silvered it for him; he took that away on the 14th; Botfield's wife brought me an eighteen inch, and two of them there; I think that was about the 15th of January. I was to silver them. On Thursday afterwards I met Botfield in Fleet-street, he wanted to know if he could not have the eighteen inch on Friday; I told him he had better let it be till Saturday, the silver would be dry and more fit to take away. I went to Mr. Oakey and told him, knowing he worked there. In consequence of that, they came, they found those two glasses in my possession; they owned them. Q. Do you mean all the three. - A. No, the two fifteens in my possession; Botfield came on the Saturday and fetched the eighteen inch glass that was silvered; he was apprehended on the 19th, he then seemed terrified, it was in Mr. Oakey's house; he said he had done nothing that he was afraid of; he denied it. Mr. Bolland. How long have you known Botfield. - A. Two years; I never heard any thing against him.
WILLIAM TRUEMAN & JOSEPH HOLBROOK Highway robbery, 31st October 1810. Verdict: Guilty; Not Guilty Punishment: Death
797. WILLIAM TRUEMAN and JOSEPH HOLBROOK was indicted for feloniously assaulting Mary Jackson in the King's highway, on the 23d of September , putting her in fear and taking from her person and against her will, a watch, value 2 l. a watch key, value 3 d. and part of a watch chain, value 1 d. her property . ............. JAMES DRING . Q. Are you the coachman of the Harwich coach - A. Yes. Q. Did you drive that coach up to London on the evening of the 23d of September - A. Yes. Q. On the other side of Rumford to London did you take up a young man to bring him up to town - A. Yes. Q. Look at the prisoner Holbrook, and tell me whether you believe he is the man - A. I have no doubt in the world. I arrived at the Spread Eagle Gracechurch-street, a quarter past nine in the evening. Q. How soon after that were you brought up before the sitting Alderman - A. On Tuesday evening, when I came in, I saw a requisition for me to go before the sitting Alderman; on Wednesday morning I went, I did not see the prisoner before the Alderman. That was the next Wednesday after I drove the prisoner to London. Q. When you so saw him before the sitting Alderman did you call to your mind any circumstance in the course of your journey, and so on, calling to your mind the conversation that passed on the coach which he related before the Alderman - A. It was dusk when he got on. Q. He related the conversation, which convinced you that he was the person - A. Yes, he related every word that was mentioned on the coach from the time he got on till he came off. Q. Was it possible for him to mention that without his being the person you brought up - A. I think it is impossible. I took him up, about half after six o'clock, at the fourteen mile stone. I have no recollection of his person.
EDWIN HOBSON Theft from a specified place Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Transportation
1392. EDWIN HOBSON was indicted for stealing, on the 4th of August , at St. Leonard, Shoreditch , 6 sovereigns; 9 half-crowns; 1 shilling; and 1 box, value 1d.; the goods and monies of William Bennett , in his dwelling-house ............................ ELLIS DRING . I am book-keeper at the Bell Sauvage. On Monday evening, the 4th of August, about half-past four o'clock, the prisoner came into the office, and asked if we had an outside place to Sheffield - I said, No; there was an inside place - he said he could not afford that - he came again at six o'clock, and took an outside place on the Birmingham coach - he paid me a sovereign, and about a quarter to seven he came, and asked if he could have an inside place, as he was very unwell - he gave me a half-sovereign and half-a-crown, and went inside.
WILLIAM WARD & JAMES BARRETT Burglary Verdict: Guilty Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment Transportation
633. WILLIAM WARD and JAMES BARRETT were indicted for burglariously breaking and entering the dwelling-house of Joseph Cole about the hour of three in the night of the 4th of Jan., at Greenwich, and stealing 1 coat, value 2l.; 1 handkerchief, 1s.; 1 shawl, 1s.; 4 shillings, 2 sixpences, 8 half-pence, and 2 farthings, his property; and that Barrett had been before convicted of felony. ..................... JOHN DRING . On Monday, the 5th of Jan., at five o'clock in the morning, the prisoners came to my stall, at No. 28 Arch, Thames Tunnel—I served them with bread-and-butter, some coffee, and a savaloy each—Bennett had a rough blue coat on. JOHN DRING re-examined. The coat I saw Bennett in was a blue rough pilot coat, at a quarter before five o'clock, and they went towards Wapping—it seemed to be rather a full sized coat—Ward had on a white smock frock.
JOHN WARDLE & JOHN GINGELL Theft from a specified place, 11th May 1846. Verdict: Not Guilty
1063. JOHN WARDLE and JOHN GINGELL was indicted for steal-ing 3 gallons of rum, value 6s.; the goods of the East and West India Dock Company, in a certain barge, in a certain port of entry and discharge. ................... RICHARD DRING . I am a cooper in the service of the East and West India Docks—it is part of my duty to examine all the casks landed at the rum quay, in the West India Dock—on Tuesday morning, the 31st of March, about ten o'clock, I attended at the unloading of the barge Blucher—I examined the whole of the puncheons that came from it—as the men rolled them over to me I observed one, No. 815, had two new plugs in it—it was marked H. & Co., S. P. & Co.—the plugs appeared to be newly made, and to have been smeared over with dirt, to take off the freshness—in half an hour after another puncheon was landed which had the same marks on it, No. 819—I found in that two plugs similar to those in No. 815—I made a communication of the matter to Mr. Taylor and Mr. Harris.
WILLIAM SEWARD Coining offences, 9th April 1849. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
858. WILLIAM SEWARD was indicted for a like offence. MESSRS. ELLIS and BODKIN conducted the Prosecution .............................. JANE DRING . I am bar-maid at the Woolpack, in St. Peter's-alley, Corn-hill. The prisoner came there on 19th March, at a quarter before ten in the evening—he asked for three pennyworth of pale brandy—I told him we could not make less than four penny worth—he said, "Very well"—I served him, and he gave me a bad half-crown—I put it into the till where there was no other—I gave him change, and he went away—I had some communication with the waiter—I found that the half-crown was bad—I saw him give it to the policeman—the prisoner was brought in again in about five minutes by the policeman. Cross-examined. Q. Had you ever seen him before? A. No—he was in the place for about five minutes—the waiter spoke to me, and looked at the half-crown—he bent it, he kept it, and gave it to the policeman—the waiter is not here—he was bending it when the policeman came in—he kept it in his hand, and he was in the bar—neither the waiter nor the half-crown were out of my sight.
JOHN RAMSDEN Embezzlement, 15th December 1851. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
112. JOHN RAMSDEN was indicted for embezzlement. MR. COOPER conducted the Prosecution. SAMUEL DRING . I live at 21, Long-alley, Moorfields, and am a grocer and cheesemonger. I deal with Mr. Allhusen—on 24th July I paid the prisoner 10l. 4s. 10d. on Mr. Allhusen's account—he receipted this invoice (produced).
ALEXANDER HOLLYFIELD & JOHN LOVE DAY Coining offences, 26th October 1857. Verdict: Guilty pleaded guilty; Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment ; Imprisonment
1015. ALEXANDER HOLLYFIELD (22) and JOHN LOVE DAY (19) were indicted for a like offence: to which HOLLYFIELD PLEADED GUILTY .— Confined Twelve Months. MESSES. ELLIS, JUN ., and LAXTON. conducted the Prosecution. ................ CHARLES HENRY DRING . I am a grocer, and live in Long Alley, Finsbury. On Friday, 9th Oct, Hollyfield came to my shop about 2 o'clock for some tea and sugar, which came to 4 1/2 d.—he gave me a 2s. piece—I gave him change, and put it into the till—I think I gave him 1s. 6d. and 1 1/2 d.; I am certain I gave him some silver—he went away—the next morning there was a bad 2s. piece; I cannot say whether it was the one he gave me—Loveday came in about half an hour after Hollyfield for an ounce of tea and a quarter of a pound of sugar; they came to 4 1/2 d.—he gave me a half crown; I gave him change, and he went away—after he was gone, I looked at the half crown, and took it over to my father—it was bad—I gave it to the constable when he came to take Hollyfield—I had kept it separate from other money—I marked it—I should know it again. .............................. GEORGE JAMES MORTON . (Policeman, G 84). I took Hollyfield on 9th Oct, at No. 118, Long Alley—this crown was given to me by Mr. Dring—I got this half crown at the station. COURT. to CHARLES HENRY DRINO. Q. Did you give this crown to the constable? A. Yes—it was given to me by Holly field on 9th Oct.—he came again between 5 and 6 o'clock, for an ounce of tea and a quarter pound of sugar, and the same quantities again; they came to 4 1/2 d.—he gave me a bad 5s. piece—I told him it was bad, and I must detain him—he crouched down, and tried to get away; I caught hold of his wrist, and detained him, sent for a policeman, and gave him into custody, with the crown
ELIZABETH NEAL Coining offences, 11th May 1863. Verdict: Not Guilty
684. ELIZABETH NEAL (26) , Unlawfully having in her possession counterfeit coin with intent to utter it. ............... MART ANN DRING . I live at 5, Bonner's-row—one Monday in April the prisoner came and took apartments at my house—she came in on Tuesday between 4 and 5 o'clock—her goods were brought the same evening—her daughter came with her—on the Wednesday, between 4 and 5, her husband came with two other men—they gave a loud knock at the door and made their way up stairs—they had a policeman at the door—the husband said, "This is my wife"—she called for her bonnet and shawl—I took it to her—she said something, I could not hear what—her husband was too quick—I said, "I will have nothing at all to do with you." and went down stairs—the husband put his hand to her hand, but what it was I could not say—the policeman took the prisoner away, and the husband stopped and took the furniture away in a van. Cross-examined. Q. He was not taken into custody at your place? A. No; they took him after he took the furniture away.
JOHN UNDERWOOD Other, 11th May 1863. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
726. JOHN UNDERWOOD(40) , Unlawfully causing to be exposed for sale in a public market certain meat unfit for human food. .................... CHARLES DRING . I am stilled in cattle diseases—I was called in in April to attend this cow, which was suffering from lung disease—I only saw it once, ten days or a fortnight before its death—I then considered that there was no chance of its recovery—it would not have been fit for human food if it had been slaughtered then, and ten days longer existence would not render it any better.
EDWARD SIMPSON Coining offences, 11th December 1871. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
109. EDWARD SIMPSON (21) , Unlawfully uttering counterfeit coin. ................... WILLIAM DRING . I keep a chandler's shop, in Larkhall, Clapham—on 20th November I saw the prisoner coming out of the Angel—I went in, and in consequence of what was told me, I followed the prisoner up Paradise Road—I saw three other persons there, he had not time to join them—they seemed all of one gang—two of them turned to the left, the prisoner to the right, and the other followed me—I went round another way to the Clapham Road, and afterwards spoke to the landlord of the Gloucester Arms.
THOMAS DENMEAD Coining offences, 30th April 1883. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment hard labour
480. THOMAS DENMEAD (17) , Unlawfully uttering counterfeit coin. HENRY BENNETT . I was the clerk in charge of the Putney Bridge Station on 5th March, the boatrace day, about 7.40 p.m., and the prisoner asked me for three single tickets for Edgware Road, price 6d. each—I found three others were with him, but there was a large crowd—he put down two shillings, one of which was bad—I broke it, and gave him a piece of it, and told him it was bad—he gave me another, which was also bad—I broke it, and gave him a piece back—I then examined the one which I had not broken, found it was bad, and gave him a piece of it—he then gave me another bad shilling, which I broke and gave him a piece back—he then handed me three more, making seven—I broke them, and gave him a piece of each—he said that he got them at a public-house in change for a half-sovereign—Dring, who was watching, took him, and I gave the pieces to Mopes, a constable—these are them. WILLIAM DRING (Policeman T R 34). On the boat race day, about 7.40 p.m., I was on duty at Putney Bridge Railway Station, and saw the prisoner come in—he asked for some tickets, and I heard the booking clerk say twice that it was bad money—the prisoner was there two minutes, and I saw a number of pieces in his hands—I caught hold of his hands, closed them together, took him into the inspector's room, and found seven large pieces in his hand—the booking clerk kept the small pieces—I found a bad shilling in his pocket, and a good half-crown, shilling, and threepence-halfpenny—a bad shilling was brought me by Inspector Curtis while I was searching him, and a constable put it to his mouth and broke it—I received from Inspector Moys the seven smaller pieces of shillings, and they corresponded with the pieces found in the prisoner's hand. ---- BOYS (Police Inspector). I was on duty, regulating traffic, and saw the clerk break a shilling—I called Dring, and gave the prisoner into his custody—two males and a female were with him—I took one of the males, but did not know what to do with him, and let him go—Bennett gave me the smaller pieces of these bad shillings—I gave them to Dring.
MARGARET LAMB Manslaughter, 22nd June 1885. Verdict: Not Guilty
627. MARGARET LAMB (40) was indicted for and charged on the Coroner's Inquisition with, the manslaughter of Annie Kimble. . SARAH KIMBLE . I am married, and live at 66, Willis Street, Bromley—on Wednesday, 27th May, about 4 in the afternoon, I was coming along St. Leonards Road with Mrs. Dring—the prisoner was walking towards me—some words ensued between her and Mrs. Dring—I had the child, Annie Kimble, in my arms; she was about three months old—the prisoner hit Mrs. Dring and blacked her eye—I begged her not to do it any more, and she said "Then you take it for her," and she hit me three or four times with her fist on my head, and she struck the child on the left side of the forehead—Mrs. Dring took the child from me before I fell—the blow on the child left a red mark, it was done with her doubled fist—I took the baby home and bathed its forehead, and gave it a powder; it seemed all right until the 31st, when it died at 9 o'clock in any arms. Cross-examined by the Prisoner. I was sober—I didn't spit in your face—I am sure you struck the child—I was not drunk or dancing in front of you—I was not drinking with your husband; I don't know him—Mrs. Dring and I had three pints of ale in the public-house from half-past 2 till 4; no man was drinking with us. MARY ANN DRING . I was with Mrs. Kimble on this afternoon—we met the prisoner—she struck me—Mrs. Kimble said "Don't beat the woman like that"—she then hit me again, and hit Mrs. Kimble also—I saw her hit the baby one blow on the left side of the head; it left a red mark. Cross-examined. I have known you and your husband 22 years, and we have been more like sisters than anything else—I was in the Hearts of Oak, but not with your husband—I live with my own husband—you never asked me not to send for your husband, and I never have sent for him—the baby was in its mother's arms when you struck it. Witnesses for the Defence. MARGARET PALMER . Mrs. Dring had the baby; the prisoner never touched it—I told the prisoner to go away and have no more to do with it, and she said "She gave me every provocation for doing what I have done." Cross-examined. I saw the prisoner strike Mrs. Kimble twice; they both fought—Mrs. Kimble never had the baby in her arms at all, Mrs. Dring had it all the time from first to last—Mrs. Dring didn't fight, but she called the prisoner several abusive names, and the prisoner hit he in the face. EMILY HAYNES . I was standing in a shop and saw this quarrel—I saw Mrs. Dring with the baby in her arms—the prisoner struck her and Mrs. Kimble while the baby was in Mrs. Dring's arms—Mrs. Kimble didn't have the baby at all—I had never seen them before.
ELSIE MILTON Coining offences, 16th October 1893. Verdict: Not Guilty
879. ELSIE MILTON (21) , Unlawfully uttering a counterfeit sovereign. .............. ANNIE DRING . l am female searcher at the Police-station to which the prisoner was brought—I searched and found on her an empty purse and two pawntickets; no money—she said her friend had given her it—she had lent him some money the day previous, and this day she had asked him to return it, and he had given her what she supposed was a sovereign—had she supposed it was a bad one she would not have tried to pass it—I never told Hayter what she told me.
JAMES JACKSON & EDWARD SAVAGE Violent Theft, 8th September 1896. Verdict: Guilty; Not Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment hard labour
663. JAMES JACKSON (22) and EDWARD SAVAGE (21) Robbery with violence, on Edward Dadley, and stealing a watch, chain, and trinket. ........................... RICHARD DRING (203 Y). About 1.30 a.m. on August 1st I saw the prisoners in the Euston Road, and took them into custody—they said they had just come back from Liverpool—I took them to the Police-station, where they were placed among twelve or fourteen others, and identified by Mr. Dadley and the little girl—Hall was with me.
FREDERICK DENHAM Bankrupcy, 18th April 1904. Verdict: Guilty Punishment: Imprisonment
384. FREDERICK DENHAM (34) , Obtaining goods and credit within four months of his bankruptcy. Other counts for obtaining credit by fraud, and by false pretences other than by fraud, and for having disposed of his properly otherwise than in the ordinary way of his trade, and for fraudently converting to his own use, property entrusted to him. ......................... EDMUND HUNT DRING . I am head assistant of Mr. Bernard Alfred Quaritch, of 15, Piccadilly—the firm has had dealings with Alexander Denham & Co.—the first ledger account was in 1900, but we had small dealings before that—after the death of Mr. Alexander Denham in 1902 we dealt with the prisoner—their purchases in 1900 amounted to £99 18s. 9d.; in 1901, to £70 19s., and up to December, 1902, £1,183 10s.—we had a second Folio Shakespeare for sale from June to December, 1902, with a Smeth wick imprint—on December 18th, 1902, the prisoner called at 15, Piccadilly—he said, "I have been asked by a customer for a copy of the First and Second Folio Edition of Shakespeare"—he said the customer was an American, and was staying either at the Carlton or Claridge's Hotel, I forget which—he said, "I want you to lend me this Second Folio Shakespeare"—I said I would consult Mr. Quaritch—I went to Mr. Quaritch and gave him full details of what the prisoner had told me—in consequence of what Mr. Quaritch said I returned and said to the prisoner, "Mr. Quaritch will allow you to take the book to show your customer, and we must have his decision within twenty-four hours"—if the customer liked the volume the payment, £720, was to be made that day month—if he did not buy, it was to be returned to us—the prisoner agreed to that and went away with the Shakespeare—a clerk made out this invoice: "210-112—Shakespeare Second Folio, old calf, 1632, £720, if sold to be paid for on 18th January, 1903"—this was near mid-day—I did not see the prisoner next day, but I was informed that Mr. Waring Denham had called—the Second Folio Shakespeare has never been returned nor paid for—we issued a writ after three days—in consequence of a statement made, I considered the volume was sold, and we treated it as having been sold by the prisoner to his customer, and looked to him for payment—a bankruptcy petition was filed before judgment was obtained—Mr. Quaritch is credited in that bankruptcy with £960 odd—there were a few items in addition to the £720—Mr. Quaritch had bought the volume at an auction at Sotheran's—this is the book (Produced). Cross-examined. I dare say I knew Denhams had been book dealers for some years—I never saw the prisoner's father—I knew the firm had been in the trade ten years in London—their dealings with our firm up to December 18th had been satisfactory—we never had a cheque returned, they were a bit slow, that was all—on December 5th I saw the prisoner as to a £1,000 transaction—the Second Folio Shakespeare was then in the shop—he did not say he had "a client in America" but that he had "an American client," and not that he was "in the habit of staying at Claridge's when he came to England"—either of us would be shy of stating to the other who our customer was—I am not sure whether he mentioned Claridge's or the Carlton—I should not have gone to find out his client in either case—I have heard of Mr. Halsey, but I would not have gone behind another man's back to find him—I have a reputation to keep up—a code of honour in the trade would have prevented my making inquiries—it was not necessary to put on the invoice the twenty-four hours' limit—as we had not the customer's name we could only look to the prisoner for payment—on December 19th I sent the prisoner an account of books bought as desired for £994—that was everything he owed—he had no option of buying the book—we should not have allowed him to have the credit, because he had not sufficient standing as a firm, but we believed him when he said he had a client who had—one supposes a certain amount of honesty and business capacity in an agent—these were transactions supposed to be cash which he had not paid for.